Punishment for treason can range from five years in prison to imprisonment for life or even, very rarely, the possible death penalty during the sentencing phase. Treason is a relatively rare charge but it is still used by government officials on occasion. Some crimes have what is known as a statue of limitations. This means someone can no longer be prosecuted for certain crimes after a certain period of time. This is not true of treason. A person can be charged with treason at any point in time.